They were able to leave the room at any time, but were encouraged to stay in the same room as the child as much as possible (Lamb, Frodi., Frodi., hwang, 1983). Two investigators performed each visit. One observer recorded the social interactions using a keyboard device that aut! Omatically encoded the time of each entry. The other investigator, the visitor, interacted with the parents and infant to help make them feel comfortable about being observed (Lamb, Frodi., Frodi., hwang, 1983). The study showed that the infants revealed a preference for mothers in the display of attachment behaviors (Lamb, Frodi., Frodi., hwang, 1983). The study also revealed no effect of increase hazlitt paternal involvement on the patterns of preference (Lamb, Frodi., Frodi., hwang, 1983).
The socioeconomic status was used to show effects of the social environment and proved to have much effect on the father absent child. The research relied too heavily on the crude categorization of father presence and father absence. This article stated that future research would attempt to measure directly the implicit underlying processes and would in turn be more beneficial. Lamb, Frodi., Frodi., hwang (1983) studied the effects of paternal involvement on infant preferences for mothers and fathers. The participants were 45 Swedish infants who were observed in their own home, interacting with their mothers and fathers, from age eight to sixteen months old (Lamb, for Frodi., Frodi., hwang, 1983). Fifteen of the fathers had spent at least one month as the childs primary caretaker (Lamb, Frodi., Frodi., hwang, 1983). The families were observed at home during a time that was convenient to the parents. Both parents had to be present so the observations usually took place in the evenings. The parents were asked to behave as naturally as possible.
Father-absent black children also did significantly better on the index of intellectual development and the wisc block design (Svanum, Bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). Decrements in intellectual and achievement test scores were found to be associated with father-absent white children. Decrements on measures of achievement were associated with black children (Svanum, Bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). Differences in mean were smaller in blacks than those obtained for white children (Svanum, bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). Main effects for father absence by ses was a major factor in this study. Ses can often largely account for differences that can be attributed to father absence. However, the role that ses assumes in the underlying processes of father absence and cognitive development is unclear at this stage of research (Svanum, bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). Father absence is inconsistently and weakly related to cognitive development in children. This article was beneficial in my opinion because it studied not only internal factors that could affect the childs development on father-absent and father-present children but also external factors.
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The participants were a nationally representative sample of 5,493 children whose father was present and 616 children whose father was absent (Svanum, Bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). Household questionnaires were the primary source of demographic characteristics of household members, family income, education, and marital status note of parents. Thorough physical, audiometrical, visual, and dental examinations were also conducted to use as data. Psychological tests, including the wisc and wrat, were also used together with other tests (Svanum, Bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). It was found that father-absent and father present children did not differ on age english and sex (Svanum, Bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). In both black and white samples, sex was found to be equally distributed between the father-present and father-absent conditions.
The average age for both father-absent and father-present black children was.4 years (Svanum, Bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). For white children the average age was.6 years for father-absent children and.5 years for father-present children (Svanum, Bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). The socioeconomic status (SES) of the childs family showed strong associations with intellectual and academic performance (Svanum, Bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). For white and black children, significant detrimental effects associated with father absence were completely accounted for by differences in ses (Svanum, Bringle, mclaughlin, 1982). White children showed a significant increase on wisc vocabulary.
Flexibility of the paternal role, availability of time on fathers part due to his unemployed status, the increased demand for his participation due to his wifes employment, and the absence of other children who could take responsibility for the young child had influence on the. Jobless fathers place more importance on other indicators that he is fulfilling the male role. If the fathers do not feel their manliness is threatened by caring for a young child then they may actively participate in child rearing. This is done despite the fact that their wives are home and not working, and there are older brothers or sisters in the home. Investigators said that unemployed men who were more involved with childcare had relatively good psychological well-being ( Radin harold-Goldsmith, 1989).
This leads us to think that maybe it was psychological well-being that led to the greater involvement in childcare. The fact that the fathers without jobs are more involved with their children could be an asset in the childs development despite the tragic reason for the paternal participation. This article was strong in the fact that the scale (picci) they used to rate the parents scores was highly recognized for its reliability and validity. It had been used for many years and found to be very helpful and supportive of past studies. I feel that the children of jobless fathers should have been interviewed as well. This would have given the researchers another view of the fathers participation in caring for their child. In this study they focused only on the parents view. Svanum, Bringle, mclauglin noted that there were enormous effects of father absence on educational achievement and intellectual development of children ranging from age six to eleven.
College Essays - top 147
The paternal Involvement in Childcare Index (picci) mom was used as a scale to measure the parent scores (Radin harold-Goldsmith, 1989). Separate scores were given to the parents based on their responses. They were placed within five categories. The scores of the five categories were added together and a total was given to each parent for father involvement. The scores of the two parents were then added together and this total was known as the paternal Involvement in Child Care Index (picci) grand total score (Radin harold-Goldsmith, 1989). "The hypothesis regarding the ability of each parents work status, fathers view of the flexibility of his role, and the birth order of the child to predict father involvement in the total sample was supported" (Radin harold-Goldsmith, 1989,.457). We are shown that all four independent variables were of great contribution to the differences in participation of the father. Father participation was at its highest when the father had no job, the young child was close to the oldest child, the father was flexible in his role, and when the mother was working. It was also found that birth order of the target child was an important factor in father participation (Radin harold-Goldsmith, 1989).
They were families that had jobs and who also had a child in preschool or kindergarten (Radin harold-Goldsmith, 1989). Seventeen of the fathers did not have a job and thirty-one of them worked (Radin harold-Goldsmith, 1989). Letters were sent to families whose child enrolled in kindergarten, had records indicating that there were two parents in the home, and that the father was jobless. The families were then contacted by phone or visited at home when they were unable to be reached via phone. They were asked if theyd like to participate and if they agreed then an interview was set up (Radin harold-Goldsmith, 1989). The participants were interviewed separately at their own home for about one writer hour. A questionnaire was used to guide the interview as the person conducting the interview read the questions aloud to the parents.
the mother and child (Rohner, 1998). Gender differences also play a role on childrens behavior. Our research showed that a single pattern of paternal love-related behavior may be associated with a certain outcome for sons and a totally different outcome for daughters. An example of this is shown when a daughters self esteem is best predicted by the fathers physical affection, whereas the sons self esteem is best predicted by the fathers sustained contact (Rohner, 1998). Rohner (1998) noted that paternal love and affection was just as predictive of childrens life satisfaction and well-being as was the love of a mother. In summary, this article shows how father love is profoundly implicated in childrens psychological well-being, health, and in behavioral problems (Rohner, 1998). This demonstrates the importance of father role in child development. Harold-Goldsmith (1989) shows the difference in involvement among unemployed and employed men with their children. The participants were 48 non-divorced families who were primarily white (Radin harold-Goldsmith, 1989).
Another study was on the effects of paternal involvement on infant preferences for mothers and fathers. Results showed that paternal involvement had no effec! T on preferences displayed by measures of attachment behavior (Lamb, mom Frodi., Frodi., hwang, 1983). The observed social behavior of children and parents from stepfather families was also taken into consideration as a possible effect of child development. Families represented by any kind of marital conflict implied explanations of the childrens social behavior (Santrock, warshak, lindbergh, meadows, 1982). All of these studies showed how the role of the father either effected or did not effect the development of the child. Father love also displays significant importance in child development.
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More coursework: 1 - a, b c, d e, f g, h i -. K - l, m n internet - o, p - s, t u -. Father Role in Child development, the role of father love in child development is of significant importance. Their role helps mold and shape the child as they grow both physically, mentally, and socially. Many aspects of a father affect how a child develops. Differences in involvement among unemployed and employed men are very important. The amount of time that the father is available to help raise the child affects the type of relationships that the child may have later in life and their social role (Radin harold-Goldsmith, 1989). There are also effects of father absence on educational achievement and intellectual development among children ranging from age six to eleven. Children who have a father that plays an active role in their schoolwork and extracurricular activities are more likely to excel as an individual (Svanum mclaughlin, 1982).