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The slave raiders traveled throughout the mediterranean sea and the north Atlantic, often taking slaves from Italy and Spain, but ranging as far north as Iceland (see sack of Baltimore etc.). Among the barbary pirates were renegade individuals from Europe including England and Holland. Some English, French, and Germans were allowed to pay their way out of slavery and so brought back the stories of marauding pirates capturing slaves. At the time that the petition was written, a number of Friends were enslaved in Morocco, including the captain of the ship that had brought Pastorious and his compatriots to pennsylvania. 1 The petition's mention of this point, then, is another example of their sophisticated reasoning. The widely circulated stories of slavery on the barbary coast were true, for Europeans had been the prey of political enemies and renegades who had captured them as slaves. Indeed, in the year that the petition was written, a number of quakers were enslaved in Morocco. 2 This analogy in the first paragraph of the petition cast the taking of slaves by the English in a questionable light.

Lot owners shown for 16The petition contains several points of difficulty for the reader unfamiliar with history. First, the petition's grammar seems unusual today but reflects the Krefelders' incomplete knowledge of English as well as typical pre-modern use of variable spelling. The original wording includes "." which is a contraction of the word "the and might be confused with the second person plural "ye" that was in wide use at the time. Second, the petition mentions Turks as an example of a people who might take someone on a ship into slavery in their native turkey. The four men were short referring to the widely known stories of Barbary pirates who had established outposts on the coast of North Africa and for hundreds of years had plundered ships. After the moors were driven out of Spain in 1492 they raided the Spanish coast and the Spanish countered with more attacks. The barbary pirates in the period (15181587) were allied with the empire in Constantinople and captured slaves to be brought back to north Africa or Turkey. Thus in their early period, their motivation was political. In the later period during the 17th century the north African pirate communities became more independent and lived mainly on plunder so the motivation for piracy was mainly economic. In that period up to 20,000 captured Christians were said to be kept as slaves in Algiers.

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The four men also assert that according to the make golden Rule, the slaves would have the right to revolt, and that inviting more people to the new land would be difficult if prospective settlers saw the contradiction inherent in slavery. In mentioning the possibility of a slave revolt, they clearly were suggesting to the English colonists that slavery would discourage potential settlers from emigrating. In the caribbean colonies there had been many slave revolts over several decades, so the possibility was real. However, the power of the argument for potential settlers from Europe was more than the fear of a revolt —it was that any such revolt would be justifiable according to the golden Rule. This logic strengthened the newly defined universal rights, which applied to all humans, not just the "civilized". The petition has several examples of such counter-intuitive but forceful arguments to push the slave-owning reader off his balance. The plan of Germantown in 1689.

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The table on which the resume 1688 Petition Against Slavery was written and signed. Throughout the petition the reference to the golden Rule is used to argue against slavery and for universal human rights. On first reading, the argument presented in the petition seems indirect. Nowhere is the meeting specifically asked to condemn the practice of slavery. Instead, in reference to the golden Rule, the four men ask why Christians are allowed to buy and own slaves, almost in mock sarcasm, to get the slaveowners to see their point. In doing so, it arguably was very successful, but it would be easy to miss the sophistication of their argument. They emphatically argue that in their society the capture and sale of ordinary people as slaves, where husband, wife and children are separated, would not be tolerated, again referring to the golden Rule.

The german-Dutch settlers were unaccustomed to slaves, although from the shortage of labor they understood why their British neighbors relied on slaves for prosperity. Slaves and indentured servants were a valuable asset for a farmer because they were not paid. Yet the german-Dutch settlers refused to buy slaves themselves and quickly saw the contradiction in the slave trade and in farmers who forced people to work. Although in their native germany and Holland the Krefelders had been persecuted because of their beliefs, only people who had been convicted of a crime could be forced to work in servitude. In what turned out to be a revolutionary leap of insight, the germantowners saw a fundamental similarity between the right to be free from persecution on account of their beliefs and the right to be free from being forced to work against their will. About the contents of the petition edit In 1688, five years after Germantown was founded, pastorius and three other men petitioned the dublin quaker meeting. The men gathered at Thones Kunders's house and wrote a petition based upon the bible 's Golden Rule, "do unto others as you would have them do unto you urging the meeting to abolish slavery. It is an unconventional text in that it avoids the expected salutation to fellow quakers and does not contain references to jesus and God. It argues that every human, regardless of belief, color, or ethnicity, has rights that should not be violated.

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write a petition to the minister

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Slaves were widely owned in the bud colonies and local slave markets made purchasing slaves easy. The slave trade was protected by the British crown and some thought it necessary for economic growth in the colonies. It was justified by racism and intolerance towards what many British saw as "uncivilized" cultures. Many ship owners and captains made large profits carrying slaves from Africa to the caribbean islands and the mainland colonies. William Penn oversaw the economic progress of his colony and once proudly declared that during the course of a year Philadelphia had received 10 slave ships.

The first settlers of Germantown were soon joined by several more quaker book and Mennonite families from Krisheim, also in the Rhine valley, who were ethnic Germans but spoke a similar dialect to the hollanders from Krefeld. Some out of pragmatism attended the local quaker meetings held in the newly built homes of immigrants, becoming involved and accepted in the Philadelphia quaker community, and eventually joining as members. However, in several ways they felt themselves outsiders, which allowed them to see and question what the English could not. Some attended the quaker meeting temporarily while they waited for a mennonite minister to arrive, and then helped to build the first Mennonite meetinghouse. The town prospered and grew, and a quaker meeting was organized at Thones Kunders's house, under the care of Dublin ( Abington meeting). By 1686 a quaker meetinghouse was constructed near the current site of Germantown Friends meeting. Thones Kunders's house at 5109 Germantown avenue, where the 1688 Petition Against Slavery was written.

Germantown became a separate and self-sufficient town of Dutch and German speakers. The thirteen original Krefelder families were mennonites who had become quakers in their native holland before they arrived in the new Pennsylvania colony. Because they had been persecuted in their own land on account of their beliefs they understood the value of a community founded on religious toleration. Unlike pastorius, they were not wealthy, but were skilled craftsmen who knew they would have to work hard for a living. By trade they were carpenters, weavers, dyers, tailors, and shoemakers, so they were not fully prepared for the hard work of clearing the forest. Over the first year they cleared land and planted crops for food and flax for weaving.


They set up looms and soon were producing linen cloth that sold widely throughout the colonies. Bas-relief portrait of Francis Daniel Pastorius,. From the library of Congress. The issue of slavery edit some of the early English settlers of Philadelphia and its surrounding towns were wealthy and purchased slaves to work on their farms. Although many such slaveowners also had immigrated to escape religious persecution, they saw no contradiction in owning slaves. Although serfdom was abolished in northwestern Europe by 1500, servitude was ubiquitous in Europe, sometimes under harsh conditions. Many immigrants to the new colony were indentured servants, working for several years in exchange for being carried on a ship to the new colony.

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Location of Thones Kunders' house is marked with red dot. Pastorius had devised a simple plan for a town, with lots parceled out along one long main thoroughfare, where settlers could build their houses. He required land good for tilling because the emigrants would need to grow their own food to survive. Pastorius and Penn became good friends, and they often discussed plans for the new settlement over dinner. The land originally promised to pastorius was supposed to be level and along a navigable river, and Pastorius had paid for 6,000 contiguous acres (24 km2). However a suitable tract of land near Philadelphia was unavailable on the delaware river, because level ground there was valuable and most of it had already been sold. Penn suggested land near the Schuylkill Falls ( East Falls but it was too steep for Pastorius's plan, so as an alternative penn suggested land a little plan further east, near the top of a gentle hill between two creeks, and Pastorius agreed. Germantown was thus founded along a lenni lenape trail four miles (6 km) north of Philadelphia, between the wissahickon and Wingohocking creeks. Pastorius had the land surveyed, and over the first winter the families lived in downtown Philadelphia while struggling to clear the land for their makeshift log houses.

write a petition to the minister

The town merchants traded with the largely quaker colony of West Jersey. The town and surrounding countryside prospered. The german settlement edit In 1683 Pastorius was delegated authority to purchase land in the new Pennsylvania colony by a group of men from Frankfurt who intended to emigrate. He traveled to Philadelphia in August 1683, having purchased a warrant from Penn's agent on human behalf of the Frankfurt men who had supplied the funds. In October, 1683, thirteen German-Dutch families from Krefeld in the Rhine valley arrived with their own land claim. Seizing upon a chance to create a viable german-speaking town, pastorius negotiated with Penn to combine the two claims. As it turned out, the people from the Frankfurt Company never emigrated to the new colony, but more quakers and Mennonites came from the Rhine valley and Pastorius's ambitious plan for a german-speaking town near Philadelphia grew and became real. Pastorius' original plan of Germantown in 1688. The town lay on a gentle hill between two creeks that could provide transportation and power.

of religion, fair trials, elected representatives, and separation of church and state. In the period 1660 to 1680, several quakers including William Penn visited the netherlands and the Rhine valley of what would later become germany, and organized gatherings where they preached the quaker testimony. Many people, including some who had been Mennonites in Krefeld and Kriegsheim (now part of the modern Mennonite congregation of Monsheim, germany in the german " Palatinate converted to the new quaker faith. Among them was Francis Daniel Pastorius, a young German born near Würzburg to a family of elite officeholders. After training as an attorney, pastorius sought spiritual release from his lucrative but uninspiring practice with the local gentry, and he turned inward looking for a philosophical purity in his life. He was attracted to penn's colony as a place where religious freedom would allow him to start afresh a life free from "libertinism and sins of the european world." meanwhile, the mennonites and quakers in the netherlands and along the Rhine valley were often fined. In 1681, penn invited people from his native england and from other European countries to the new colony. He arrived in 1682, had the land surveyed, organized Philadelphia as a welcoming town laid out as a grid with many green spaces, and profited by selling lots. Soon, the waterfront was a bustle of activity, town streets were laid out with houses built on narrow lots, and churches of several different faiths were established.

Contents, historical background edit, main article: History of slavery in Pennsylvania, pennsylvania was founded in 1682. William Penn as an English colony where people from any country and faith could settle, free from religious persecution. In payment of a debt to penn's father, penn had received from. King Charles ii of, england a large land grant west. New Jersey movie which, king Charles ii of, england named, pennsylvania after William's father, Admiral Penn. Penn had become a friend. George fox, the founder of the, society of Friends, called, quakers after their unique way of speaking.

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The 1688 Germantown quaker Petition Against write Slavery was the first protest against African-American slavery made by a religious body in the English colonies. It was drafted. Francis Daniel Pastorius and signed by him and three other quakers living. Germantown, pennsylvania (now part of, philadelphia ) on behalf of the, germantown meeting of the. Religious Society of Friends. It was forwarded to the monthly, quarterly, and yearly meetings without any action being taken. John Greenleaf Whittier, the original document was discovered in 1844 by the Philadelphia antiquarian Nathan Kite and published.


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Use these pages to find your msp and learn about their work. The petition was the first American public document to protest was also one of the first written public declarations of universal human rights.

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  1. None of the defamation Act 2013 has been extended to northern Ireland, and former. Minister for Finance personnel Sammy wilson. Msps are chosen by the people of Scotland to work on their behalf.

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